On the WWW, I see a lot of confusion about the appropriate
ALT texts in HTML. Although the finer points could
be argued, I believe the
general principles are
more or less as I have set them out in this note.
At least, I commend them to you, and look
forward to reasoned discussion if you disagree.
ALT text is meant to be alternative text,
primarily for use when the image is not being
displayed. The most common mistake (if used at all!) is
to provide a description of the image, without considering what
job the image was doing on the page, leading to results that
can range from the incongruous to the absurd. The
is intended to be a suitable textual alternative to the purpose
of the image: sometimes that might turn out to be a
description of the image, but in practice that choice seems to
be wrong far more often than it's right.
Some readers prefer to see my collection of howlers first.
The first principle of HTML authoring, it seems to me, is to convey information to the reader about some "topic of discourse". That's a high-falutin' way of saying that one is writing a story, advertising a product, offering scientific results, giving a tutorial on basket-weaving, recipes for cooking wild mushrooms, or whatever the "topic of discourse" happens to be. (I'm not considering the special case of writing about HTML or about the WWW - that just confuses the issue.)
Reference to mechanics of the World Wide Web or a particular browser is generally a distraction. There are differences between browsers and platforms, and trying to tell the user how to use the browser with which you, the author, are familiar, can just confuse users of a different browser/version/platform. I recommend authors, as a general rule, to presume that users already know how to operate their browsers, or can find out (Help files etc.), and are hungry for your information about the "topic of discourse". 
This note is about web pages that have substantial text content, whose images are an adjunct rather than being the whole purpose of the page. In other words, the content is inherently accessible to text-only readers, and it's the author's job to facilitate such readers to get the best that they can out of the document, in spite of the absence of images. I don't try to cover the kind of WWW document whose information is, for whatever reason, primarily dependent on images, such as say a photo gallery, although some of the points made here can certainly be usefully applied there too.
This note is emphatically not asking you to "dumb-down" your documents in order to make them work on text-mode browsers. What it is doing is asking you to give thought to how your documents will come across in a wide range of browsing situations, and to follow an authoring style that will make best use of whatever combination of resources each reader has at their disposal. That is the big difference between the concept of the WWW, and most other ways of publishing information.
Caveat: If you are mandated to produce fully-accessible documents, then obviously your accessibility guide takes precedence. Please also visit the Web Accessibility Initiative pages at W3C.
ALT is no longer the only attribute available
for conveying text-mode information.
With HTML4 we have three or four
attributes available, reducing the need for compromise in
the way that each is used: the title attribute on the image itself,
the title attribute on any link which encloses the image, and the
longdesc link to a page with a long description of the image.
MSIE versions, as well as a number of specialised browsers,
have offered support for some of these features,
and Mozilla/Netscape 6+ is now on-board with them.
Advice on how to exploit these features
(aimed at disability situations, and broadly helpful in general
text-mode browsing too), can be found at the W3C WAI:
I encourage authors to phase-in the use of these features
in ways that would be helpful to those whose browsers support
them, but avoiding a complete reliance on them.
Look on the
ALT text as an opportunity to reinforce
your message, as discussed in this
item in the W3C WAI email archives, which I thoroughly recommend
pondering over: it's a win-win option, which does no harm to those who
are already getting your point, but rates to help those readers who
would be less-effectively reached without it.
See also Ian Hickson's ALT
text miniFAQ, his idea of a specification
for client agent behaviour, and the Images tests in his Eviltests repertoire.
In HTML, you can offer an inline
IMG, or a regular link
(anchor) that points to an image. You may decide to use one or other, or
both, of these. If you are offering a link to an image, then your
options are to include, within the scope of that link anchor, either an
IMG or some normal text, or both. So there is a wide choice
of combinations, each of which could be appropriate in particular
ALT attribute of the
IMG is intended
to be used as alternative text for situations where the
is not being displayed. The idea is expressed well in the HTML4
recommendation (section 13.8):
"Several non-textual elements (IMG, AREA, APPLET, and INPUT) require authors to specify alternate text to serve as content when the element cannot be rendered normally."
Note that key phrase: "...to serve as content...".
In section 13.2 there is a very sloppy remark
quoted from the comments in the DTD, saying
that "you need to provide a description with ALT":
we will see in this discussion that a description
of the image is often a poor choice as the alternative text,
precisely because it does not "serve as content" in the particular
An insightful tip that I learned from WAI discussions was, instead of
thinking of the
ALT text as a substitute for the
think of the text and the image as alternative representations for
The corollary of that is that when someone asks "what's the right alt text for this image?", the appropriate first response is "what job is that image meant to be doing on the page: what content does it represent?". Once the answer to that has been given, then choosing the right alt text should follow naturally. Omitting to ask that question, and just composing an alt text by rote without attention to context, produces absurdities of the kind we see in the howlers.
ALT text itself is not allowed to
be marked up by including HTML tags within the text; on the other hand
IMG (and thus its
ALT text) is governed by
any tags that enclose it, so, for example, if your
IMG is a
heading, or part of a heading, be sure to enclose it between the
The use of
&#number; mechanisms is legal, and supported
by any reasonable browser now.
Text-mode browsers will typically flow the actual text string
onto two or more displayed lines if needed, so this is not a
problem. Graphical browsers, I am afraid, don't do a particularly good
ALT texts, and for years it seemed to get
worse with each edition of the 'popular' browsers,
but there isn't much that you can do about that as a document author.
Opera and, now, Mozilla-based browsers, commendably reverse that trend.
Hint: avoid putting line breaks in your source HTML within your ALT
texts, as some browsers display badly. If necessary, start on a
fresh source line before the
ALT= attribute, and end the
source line after the closing quotation mark, but don't break the source
line anywhere between.
Some people have tried the plausible trick of including
&#number; references for carriage-return and/or
line-feed in their ALT text in hope of getting line-breaks in its
display, but I'm afraid this isn't part of the specification and doesn't
HTML4 introduces the
LONGDESC attribute, for linking
to a document offering a long description, which may be
supported by specialised browsers, at least: there was a well-established
convention for unobtrusively offering such a link using
existing mechanisms .
Well, from the fact that you're reading this article, I hope you already think it's a good idea, but I have written some notes .
Some of the biggest "casualties" on the information dirt-track are documents whose authors didn't take the indexing robots seriously. Every step that you take towards text-mode accessibility is also a step towards being friendly to those indexing robots, so (whether or not you care about minority audiences such as the blind or users of text mode terminals) I'd say it's in your own interest to keep text-mode accessibility in mind.
Callie at Writepage commented:
Many authors haven't figured out exactly what they are trying to present; they don't know what it is about the image that's important to the page's intended audience. The reason you can't figure out why their alt [texts] aren't working is that they don't know why the images are there. Every graphic has a reason for being on that page: because it either enhances the theme/ mood/ atmosphere or it is critical to what the page is trying to explain. Knowing what the image is for ... makes the labels easier to write.
When you write predominantly-textual material in HTML, you address three different kinds of user:
The speaking machine isn't only for blind readers, although why people would want to put additional difficulties in the way of blind people accessing their textual material I can't imagine; a sighted reader might use a speaking machine while resting their eyes or otherwise occupied. Motor-impairment can also mean that an otherwise well-adjusted person cannot use a conventional user-interface (such as the precision needed for a typical imagemap).
When you use an inline image, the
ALT text is your tool
- not very precise, but a serviceable tool nevertheless - to get
your message over to readers of types II and III. There are several
different reasons why you might be making images available to your
reader, so, not surprisingly, there are several different approaches to
choosing an alt text. I found it helpful to categorise four main types
of image. These are not meant to be in any order of priority: each use
has its proper field of applicability.
If your reader doesn't display these, there is nothing that
an alt text can usefully add to the topic of discourse, and a
reader running in text mode is unlikely to want to view or download
ALT="" in most cases.
If you are using one as a link anchor, be sure to include
some text in the scope of the anchor too (it is good authoring
style to make the significant text be the link, rather than
some insignificant bullet or, so help me, "click here").
Spacer images (until this unpleasant crutch has been phased out)
should have an
ALT attribute which
also serves as a spacer (maybe
For cautionary, interrogatory etc. icons the natural choice for
text-mode browsers would be something like "[!]" or "[?]", and
ALT="*" etc.; however, in general
ASCII-art may produce intrusive results on a speaking browser.
Something like this may be worth considering:
<EM><IMG ... ALT="Warning: "></EM>
As far as company logos are concerned, well, if the name of the
company is already on the page in clear text, as is often the case,
then the logo can be treated as decoration, and
is appropriate; if the logo were being used instead
of the company name, "Foo Corporation", then I recommend
ALT="Foo Corporation" as the right choice; in fairness
I should note that there are differing opinions held on this topic,
and only the author can truly know whether they intended the logo
to be a visual branding mark on the page, such that no textual
replacement would be meaningful, or as a significant element that
should be brought to the attention of non-image readers.
(But if you sell logos, and are exhibiting specimens of your work,
then your logos are your content!)
The often-seen variations on
ALT="Logo of Foo Corporation", or even
size GIF of logo" (!) are incomprehensible: the author is
supposed to be providing the reader with information, not with
meta-information (descriptions of information). A text
description of the logo is generally felt to be inappropriate
as ALT text: for those readers who wanted it  there are accepted conventions of
offering a separate description.
With the increased emphasis on separation of Content
(marked up in HTML) from Presentation (proposed by CSS),
it's been persuasively argued that "decorative images" should be treated
as "presentational", and so should be taken out of the HTML, and
proposed (for appropriate
media types) from the stylesheet.
The issue of selecting an
alt text for those images
Here, the text equivalent is usually simple enough, being a short statement of the target ("Adventure", "Science Fiction") or function ("Contents", "Next Chapter", "Previous", "Foo Corporation Home Page"). Please bear in mind that browsers already have their own meaning for terms such as "Back", "Home", "Forward", so it is best to avoid the potential confusion that results when the author makes these terms mean something else. Please avoid those "Return to (xyz)" links, that are so irritating to someone who went directly to your page, and has never visited (xyz) before.
By all means help your readers to understand your site layout by using terms such as "Previous", "Up", "Next", or texts which state the destination explicitly ("About Quarks"); but I still say avoid the confusion of the terms "Return" or "Back".
Some authors prefer to offer alternative text-mode links
separately from their graphical links,
in which case
ALT="" would seem plausible; but I
prefer to avoid the confusion of two sets of
navigation links pointing to the same
targets. Also, accessibility checkers rightly complain when
they find an image used alone as a link and given
some browsers will detect this situation and overrule the
ALT="" in the interests of accessibility.
Thumbnails, for "navigating" to a fullsize image of the same thing, are discussed under (c).
Imagemaps are a special case of this category. In some situations, imagemaps play a role that cannot directly be substituted by anything else (geographical maps, for example), but some alternative means of navigation such as an A-Z index or a search can be useful to all kinds of users, you should not devalue it as an extra chore that's only for text-mode readers. Often, though, on the WWW, one sees imagemaps used instead of simple links, presumably on the grounds that it's more complex and so demonstrates the author's prowess. This is a pity, if the author doesn't also have the prowess to make their page usable for all text-mode readers.
Client-side imagemaps, for which browser support is now widespread, are
more adaptable for use by text-mode users than the older server-side
maps were, so long as you provide them with
ALT texts on
AREA tags. Still, as a navigation tool, a row of
ALT texts can do the job in an
effective manner, that adapts better to changes of window size.
I offer a page about text-friendly imagemaps. Did I say you should provide separate graphical and text-only pages? - I did not: in general I don't believe you need to, and those people who keep yelling "I can't afford the time to make separate text mode versions of my pages" are just looking for some excuse for their inability to make a web page that is both visually attractive on a graphical browser, and accessible to text mode users.
These are graphics that the user may find helps their appreciation of the text, but are not mandatory to it. I suggest that there are two ways of going about this.
Provide only links to them; show the reader what's on offer
with a brief description. Now, the principle says not to fuss about
details of the WWW, but in this case, what with limited bandwidth and
the possibility of not all image formats being accepted by all browsers,
we can make an exception and warn the reader what it is that we are
offering here. So an example could be
<a href="...">Frigate, circa 1800, 560kB
Provide an inline
IMG, with an
ALT text that summarises the major feature that you wanted
to bring to the reader's attention, e.g
ALT="Warships at that time usually had two rows of cannon"
You should be able to word the body of your text so that it doesn't pre-suppose the reader is also viewing the image alongside. As long as readers of "type II" are aware that an image is available, they can make their own decision whether to load it. Giving readers of "type III" the impression that you are commanding them to load an image will only frustrate and annoy.
Of course, you could combine an inline
IMG, with its
ALT text, together with a link to an out of line image
(typically a larger, more detailed version of it). Then,
take care to put the information in its proper place, whether
as clear text to be seen by all readers, or in the
aimed chiefly at those who are not loading images. But these are minor
details, compared with the major abuse that we see out on the WWW.
If you feel that the
IMG needs additional alt
text, provide it; if not, then put
alt text could typically supply the chief piece of information for which
you had provided the picture, e.g following the above example, you might
describe the major relevant feature of the vessel illustrated by the
picture. The test of appropriateness, as ever, is to imagine the HTML
document viewed without the picture - or imagine reading
the document to someone over the telephone - and ask yourself
ALT text supplies useful information about the
field of discourse. (Technical information about the missing images is,
as I say, tolerated if it's for good reason, but in an article on
historic ships, the reader primarily wants information about ships, not
technical woffle about the WWW.)
In some fields, this situation rarely
arises. In others (e.g science and engineering, and mathematics so
long as we have to put equations in as inline images), it's quite
a common occurrence.
In this case, provided you have somehow made the reader aware
that the document will unfortunately be meaningless without them
loading the inline images, there may be nothing useful you can do
I don't think cases (a) and (b) really need a great deal of discussion. (c) and (d) are trickier, and it's not always obvious which of the two we're dealing with. One reader's essential illustrations are another reader's optional extras, and in the more borderline cases it's possible to make an image seem to be either essential or supplemental depending on just how you word the text (as Toby Speight pointed out).
In a situation where there is some agreed scheme for a textual
representation, then you could use that as the
ALT text. If your audience is accustomed to reading
mathematical equations in
notation, you could use that
as alt text for the image of the equation.
If you are dealing with heraldry, then you might use the
appropriate heraldic description or "blazon",
Three Seaxes Argent in pale on a field Vert.
Similarly if the image represents musical notation,
needlework, or anything else for which there is
also an accepted textual notation.
In fairness, there are cases where a
graphic is absolutely essential to the meaning, and no reasonable
amount of text can possibly replace it.
But this is no excuse for providing useless alt texts in those
situations where a useful one could be provided.
We had an example a little while back in which someone had suggested
(in the context of holiday offers) an alt text that said
ALT="Picture of Hotel". I say this is inappropriate because
it tells us nothing about the topic of discourse - instead, it tells
us chiefly about the mechanics of the WWW. What the reader,
particularly a reader of "type III", wants to know is - what does the
picture show that's relevant to the topic of discourse? The picture
might show, for example:
ALT="The Pines Hotel, a fine old stone
building in extensive grounds". This is suggested as an alt text,
rather than as a caption, because those readers who can see the picture
will already be able to see it for themselves. If you want to also offer
them a link to the picture, then do so, in one of the ways mentioned
above. (Even a blind reader might want to download the picture, to show
it to a friend later.)
Readers of "type II" already have browser facilities that allow them
to retrieve the image if they so choose (Lynx puts the inlines only a
keystroke "*" away); there is nothing extra that the author really needs
to do about it - and after several discussions of what the author
could do, nobody seems to have come up with anything that
really provides worthwhile additional help to the text-only user without
needlessly distracting the graphics-based user. (As so often on the
WWW, the important thing is to mark up the information
honestly for what it is, rather than trying to out-guess the browser
designer; if there are limitations in the facilities that one or other
browser offers, then the place to remedy them is in the browser design,
not in the author's HTML source.) When I mentioned in a usenet
discussion my dissatisfaction with the above text,
Hotel", someone helpfully suggested
"Download picture of
Hotel". I hope that by now I've made it clear why, far from being
an improvement, this seems to me to be even worse: it concentrates yet
again on the mechanics of the WWW rather than on the "topic of
One suggestion was to capitalise on the typical text-mode browsers'
[IMAGE] notation by putting the
ALT text within
square brackets, so that text-mode users would associate this with an
ALT="[The Pines Hotel, a fine old stone
building...]". This seems a good idea for sighted users, but
again the extra punctuation might be intrusive for voice browsers.
As said before: if the image is mandatory to your presentation, then say so plainly. If not, then don't pester the reader to load it: tell them what information it contains relevant to the "topic of discourse", and leave them to take action as they consider appropriate.
"This page has been visited [Counter Image] times"
"Accessed [a bitmapped number] times since 12/1/95"
(and several variations on this theme).
Well, this has nothing to do with the "topic of discourse". I don't think any of the variations could be claimed to be good style (not forgetting that 12/1/95 means something different to European readers than what it means to USAns). But I can't work up any enthusiasm for page counters, nor can Jeff Goldberg.
Version by version, popular graphical browsers got worse and worse in their display of ALT texts when auto image loading was off. Then they seem to have hit upon the idea of displaying the ALT texts as "tooltips" when the mouse pointer was on the image location. Plenty of authors seem to have reacted by using the ALT text to specify their desired tooltip text, regardless of the text being entirely inappropriate for use as the "alternative text" described in the HTML specifications.
Well, HTML4 has an answer to this: the
The HTML4 spec says explicitly that it would be appropriate for the
TITLE attribute to be displayed as a "tooltip", so it all falls into
place. Use the
ALT text for the purpose of providing
alternative text, for example along the lines discussed in this article,
and use the
TITLE attribute to title the image, in a way that
would be appropriate for a tooltip. Support for the
attribute was introduced in MSIE4, and in Opera and other browsers: the
major problem was Netscape 4.* releases, but Netscape 6 finally supports
More about this in ALT text as popups: a critical response.
Authors ask, reasonably enough, to use
IMG of a decorative rule in the graphical
display, that falls back to some kind of separator
in a text mode display: several ways of doing that have been
suggested, but none are without shortcomings.
Style sheets are the least harmful way: see an earlier suggestion of mine using styles with an HR.
In theory, inserting your decorative image with
HR as the fallback, would be another
solution entirely within the philosophy of HTML, but sadly not
well implemented by even the latest crop of browsers.
Discussion of the various solutions on usenet brought a number of strongly-held but mutually incompatible views, so if none of these solutions appeal to you, it might be advisable to re-cast the design so that the problem doesn't need to be solved..
Consider some images crammed together, for example as navigation buttons:
ALT="The University"><IMG SRC=town.gif
When viewed on a text-mode browser, this is going to read:
The UniversityThe Town...
Various solutions may be considered:
"Left ", "Right ", "Index ", "Config "
is considered unsatisfactory in general, as it could be confusing just where the link boundaries are; and note that HTML4 warns against using leading/trailing "white space" on attribute values.
Vertical bars are a popular alternative: to get e.g:
the ALT texts might be respectively:
"|Left|", "Right|", "Index|", "Config|"
Brackets balance well and
they reflect a long-standing text browser
idiom of representing
IMG with [LINK],
[INLINE] etc.: providing ALT texts such as
"[The University]", "[The Town]", "[Main Index]",
etc., produces the obvious result:
[The University][The Town][Main Index]
The above ideas are serviceable in quite a range of
though I have to admit that some speaking browsers are less than
ideal, for example it's no fun listening to
left square bracket,
right square bracket while the links are being read out
(example from an earlier version of IBM Home Page Reader).
Nowadays it might be a more productive approach to provide text-mode links as the primary navigation mechanism, and use CSS stylesheets to propose a decorative presentation for them (for suitable media, of course).
Some accessibility guidelines recommend having more than just space(s) separating adjacent link texts. But most users of graphical browsers don't need or want such separators. Here's a suggestion: as ALT texts for the images within the scope of the links, use the appropriate texts without additional separators. Then, between those images, outside of the scope of the links, place one-pixel transparent GIFs with their alt text set to "|" to act as text mode separators. See the navigation bar at the foot of this page where this is used in practice.
Note that the buttons do not have their height and width
specified, whereas the separator pixels have their height and
width (=1) specified. I've played around with this on a range of
browsers, and it seems to me to be a nice compromise. When image loading
is enabled, graphical browsers produce a result that is practically
indistinguishable from the earlier constructs. On graphical
browser/versions with image loading disabled, some gave good results
while others were visually rather poor, but all were at least
serviceable. The results on text browsers (Lynx and emacs-w3) were
(I used to suggest
alt=" | ", with
white space either side of the bar, but
I now know that this produces undesirable effects
in IBM Home Page Reader, for example.)
OK, this is just one suggested solution: maybe other authors will find a better compromise; and, as specialised browsers are developed further, the need for some of these workarounds may fade away. Again one might consider whether it was better to offer a simple text menu in the HTML, that would be serviceable from any browsing situation, optionally modified from the stylesheet to give visual styling for appropriate media types.
There had been a long-running debate on c.i.w.a.html about
the wisdom of providing correct HEIGHT and WIDTH attributes on
IMG tags. The idea is that the browser can reserve space
for the image before the image is retrieved, and in consequence can
present the normal text properly formatted on the page as soon as the
text is available, simply slotting the images into place later as they
Browser versions differ in how they support this when image loading
is turned off. Some (e.g Netscape 4.* versions) will display the
ALT text only partially, or not at all, if the specified
rectangle is too small. MSIE can display the whole
ALT text, but it is not the default (Tools/ Internet
Options/ Advanced/ Accessibility/ "Always expand ALT text for images").
The behaviour while waiting for image loading to be completed (some
browsers display the
ALT text during this interval) may or
may not be the same as the behaviour when image loading is turned off.
Too many variations of behaviour have been seen, between browsers and
between versions, to be able to give an account of them here. On balance
I think the only advice I can offer is to normally include correct
HEIGHT and WIDTH information; but if these are likely to be too small
for the text, then you might decide to deliberately omit those
The colour of ALT text is discussed separately.
There's also a separate page about INPUT TYPE=IMAGE.
A correspondent suggests that many of the misuses described here are being caused by the "authoring tools" which authors are using to create their WWW documents. But that isn't much of an excuse, is it? HTML markup is simple enough already: certainly it makes sense to use an appropriate software tool to save drudgery, and I'm all in favour of that as a principle. But when the tool prevents you from producing documents that conform to good authoring style, then you should be questioning your original decision to rely on that particular tool.
A reader asks:
Someone is now trying to tell me that alt text can actually
block search engine spiders from indexing a site. Is this
I find this hard to believe. Omitting
offends against web accessibility
guidelines, which surely count for something, even amongst those who
do not take HTML syntax rules seriously.
There's various surveys of search engine properties, but the search
engines do change their procedures rather quickly so it's not useful
to try to summarise them here: what is certainly true is that at
various times some of them have, and some of them have not, indexed
But I've seen nothing credible to say that
ALT texts, in themselves, would be harmful to web
indexing, and it would indeed seem perverse (and would draw adverse
comment in relation to accessibility) for one of them to do so. I
certainly wouldn't let it discourage me from proper use of
ALT, and I'd soon add my signature to the petition if such
a search engine is found!
Maybe your informant is thinking of the misuse of ALT attributes to "spam"
the indexing robot with keywords, but then it would be the keyword spamming
which was the abuse (and would apply to any other means of feeding the
indexer with keywords which were otherwise not seen by the normal reader)
rather than the use of ALT attributes as such.
By the way, I have never taken any active steps to get my own web pages registered with search engines. But when I search for topics that are of interest to me, my own pages keep coming up, relatively high on the list. So I must be doing something right.
The online edition of a prestigious US newspaper was seen promoting its partners thus
P A R T N E R S : [LINK]-[USEMAP] spacer [LINK] spacer [LINK] spacer
This was seen on a unix system for which the recommended browser is not in fact available:
Our site is best experienced with: [LINK]Click to Get It!
Then, there was this great piece of self-advertising (spelling as in original):
Another fine Web sight from [Company Logo]
Welcome to... Borough Crest The Borough of On-Line Having problems accessing our site? [Click Here]
[LINK]-visual fubarGmbH direct rubriken [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] Privat [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] Aktuell [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [space.gif] [spitze-links.gif]
(My informant tells me they were immediately taken out of consideration for the contract.)
siterequirements.jpg notice.jpg inorderto.jpg getquicktime.jpg getflash.jpg plugintester.jpg agreement.jpg
This artist had used a whole job-lot of images
(almost exclusively images of text), each solemnly furnished
ALT text which repeated the
image's file name, like so:
img src="site_requirements_images/inorderto.jpg" alt="inorderto.jpg"
Way back, I browsed the results of a web search for the string "etscape", and found some HTML sources varying from the slightly silly to the sheer demented! Interestingly, when I reviewed this in 2002, it looks as if most of the "etscape-enhanced" sites are from 1997 or earlier. How fashions fade!
ALT="Large Yellow Bullet"
So we get to read (or blind readers get to hear):
Large Yellow Bullet Introduction Large Yellow Bullet The Problem Small Red Bullet Historical Analysis Small Red Bullet Current Situation Large Yellow Bullet The Solution
The web site of the US Embassy Belgrade had this prizewinning example:
Small red bullet Response to Terrorism
ALT="This image is mapped, please download it"
For text-mode browsers, this does not help. I've already made some more-appropriate suggestions above. See my accompanying imagemap page for more detail and references.
ALT="Turn on image loading, damnit!"
One wonders just how many potential visitors have given that site a miss because it "welcomed" the indexing robot in such a brusque and uninformative fashion.
ALT="Imagemap of various flags"
What would a text-only user want with an image of some unspecified flags? This is supposed to be a navigation tool, not a guessing game!
Alt="(Sorry, Not Available With Your Web Client)"
Nonsense! I was using Netscape with image loading turned off. Even if I had been using Lynx, who are you to say that I can't fire up a helper application to see this image?
An image of some "self-explanatory" text,
ALT="Put your alt text here"
Gosh, could they be Weapons of Mass Distraction?... Ah: this is their Physics Department's web page, decorated at the left with the University's coat-of-arms (not ours: but name changed to protect the guilty...).
I beg your pardon? Ah, here's what went wrong:
<IMG SRC="bull.jpg" ALT="Photo of a bull in the water">
<IMG SRC="canoe.jpg" ALT="canoeing">
The original site, which featured a scenic Canadian river, showed two perfectly reasonable, but unrelated, pictures: later, a reader of this article, "Michael T.", sent me a fine illustration of this howler!.
Unusable in text mode, or on a monochrome display.
Choose a graphic icon that can carry the message by its
shape - in this case it could be a little mortarboard
(no harm in making it coloured too); and
choose distinctive text markers to use for the
Academic departments are indicated
by: <IMG SRC="mortarboard.gif"
(making the corresponding adjustment to the list itself, of course).
This was "leakage", where the author had made the mistake of referring from the text to some aspect ("pink bullets") of the presentation that would only be perceived by a subset of readers. The WWW, by its very nature, will separate content from presentation in this way: a careful author can choose a style of authoring that does not fall into this kind of trap.
ALT="Loading... Please Wait"
Nice try! But who guarantees that the browser is, in fact, loading images at this time? As Jukka K says, 'Should I wait until I get some mental disorder that makes me click on the "show images" button?'
ALT="Plot of fish population against date"
This is a more subtle problem, but the poor text-mode reader is left wondering what the heck is that graph-plot supposed to be telling me?. A more helpful text might be "Graph: fish population fell dramatically through 1980's until fishing moratorium imposed", or whatever the graph actually illustrates.
Oh dear! Is nothing sacred? - this came from
(an earlier version of) the welcome page of the W3C themselves!
Several images had been displayed together, without any provision
for spacing or punctuating their
<CENTER> <FONT SIZE=6>Our Classrooms and Staff</FONT> <IMG SRC="rule.gif"
ALT="fancy horizontal rule"> </CENTER>
Instead of using
<H1> for this first level
header, they had simply marked it up with a font size: there was no
linebreak implied between the text and the image.
With image loading on, this was not a problem: the "fancy horizontal
rule" was so big that it automatically went onto a new line. However,
with text-mode browsers this whole thing was quaintly rendered as
Our Classrooms and Staff fancy horizontal rule
Certainly they should have used
H1 markup for the header.
One way to handle a decorative horizontal rule is mentioned above.
(Comment: you may be able to find some of the examples with search engines which include alt text; others have been adapted, or some examples taken and a composite "howler" made. Search engines which index ALT texts still have no problem finding plenty of pages containing "small red bullet" or similar, and they aren't all web authoring tutorials advising you not to do it, unfortunately.)
I don't believe that any particular familiarity with a text browser,
nor indeed with a speaking machine, was required in order to select a
ALT text for most examples. If the document had
been marked up by giving appropriate thought to the content
that is to be communicated to the reader, rather than getting
side-tracked by the mechanics of the WWW, then it could have "worked" on
every browser - and searcher and indexer. And without in any way
degrading its visual appearance in the common
graphical browsing situations.
My thanks and best regards to all who have contributed to the discussions on earlier drafts of this note.
"Plagiarism is the sincerest form of flattery"? Apart from a version of this article which was featured at the WDG site with my agreement and full co-operation, and extracts which have been used with my permission in a couple of other places, web search engines have found several different sites that had "lifted" substantial parts of this article without asking permission or acknowledging their source, including one that had applied their own copyright notice onto my material. I suppose I should be pleased that the ideas are finding such an echo, but...
Last changed Friday, 03-Jun-2005 01:06:18 BST
Original materials © Copyright 1994 - 2006 by A.J.Flavell & Glasgow University